General Knowledge (Biology)


There are two phases in which the process of photosynthesis

  1. Photochemical reaction : The process occurs in the grana is called Hill reaction. In this process water (H2O) dissociates and forms H+ and electron and for this composition of (H2O) energy is obtained from light.
  2. Chemical dark reaction: The process occurs in the stroma of the chlorophyll is called dark reaction.

The metal magnesium is found in the chlorophyll of plant leave.

  1. Auxins: Invented by Darwin in 1880. The cell division and cell elongates consequently a sustained growth takes place in the plants. Main function: Seedless fruits are produced.
  2. Gibberellins: Invented by Kurosawa in 1926. The main hormone of this group is Gebberelic Acid. Main function: This hormone is used in increasing the height of the plants.
  3. Cytokinin: invented by Miller in 1955.Main function: The main function of hormones cytokinin is to activate the rate of cell division.
  4. Ethylene: invented by Brug in 1962. Main function: Ethylene is used as a the fruit ripening hormone.
  5. Abscisic Acid: Stress hormone, Growth inhibitors. Main function: This hormone responsible for shedding of cotton balls.
  6. Indole Acetic Acid (IAA): Natural Auxin main auxin hormones.

Deficiency diseases

  1. Protein deficiency diseases
    1. Kwashiorkar
    2. Marasmus
  2. Mineral deficiency diseases
    1. Goitre
    2. Anaemia
  3. Bacteria diseases
    1. Cholera (caused by vibriocholerate)
    2. Diptheria (caused by corynebacterium diphtheriae)
    3. Tuberculosis (caused by mycobacterium tuberculoses)
    4. Leprosy (caused by mycobacterium leprae)
    5. Tetnus (caused by clostridium or bacillus tetani)
    6. Typhoid (caused by salmonella typhi or typhosa)
    7. Pneumonia (caused by diplococcus pneumoniae)
  4. Viral diseases
    1. AIDS [acquired immuno deficiency syndrome(HIV virus)]
    2. Rabies (Hydrophobia)
    3. Jaundice
    4. Chicken pox
    5. Measles (caused by morbeli virus)
    6. Hepatitis
  5. Protozoans diseases
    1. Malaria (caused by plasmodium)
    2. Kalazar (caused by leishmania donovani): bite of sandfly
    3. Sleeping sickness (caused by trypanosome brucei): biting of tse-tse fly.
    4. Dysentery (caused by entamoeba hystolitica)
  6. Genetical diseases
    1. Haemophilia
    2. Colour blindness
    3. Down’s Syndrome (Mongolism): In Down’s Syndrome is caused by the appearance of an extra chromosome. Thus such persons have 47 chromosomes on the behalf of 46 and the born offsprings are stupid or abnormal by birth. Stubby fingers, thick everted and crack lips, dry, rough skin, sub-normal height etc.
  7. Diseases caused by Helminthes or Worms
    1. Filaria (caused by wuchereia bancrofti)
    2. Tapeworm
  8. Some other diseases
    1. Ascariasis (caused by ascaris lumbricoids)
    2. Taeniasis (caused by taenia solium)